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 the kingdom of Northumbria

Aldrfrith (685-705)
Eadberht (737-758)
Aethelwald Moll (759-765)
Alchred (765-774)
Aethelred I (774-c.780 / 789-796)
Eardwulf (796-806)
Aelfwald II (806-808)
Eanred (810-841)
Redwulf (c.844)
Aethelred II (841-c.844/c.844-c.850)
Osberht (c.850-867)
Archbishops of York
Ecgberht (737-758)
Eanbald I (c.779-780)
Eanbald II (796-835)
Wigmund (837-c.850)
Wulfhere (c.850-900)
Civil War (c.843/44-c.855)
Irregular or Derivative Issues

Northumbria had been from the early seventh century a major political and cultural force within the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. Its kings had been Bretwaldas' or paramount kings amongst their English and British neighbors and its scholars and religious leaders were amongst the most respected in all of Christendom. However, by the ninth century Northumbria was in terminal decline and after periods of civil war quickly fell victim to the Danish Viking invaders that overran the the kingdom in A.D. 867. A curious feature of the late Northumbrian kingdom was its coinage of copper stycas or debased Sceats. Northumbria's archaic base metal coinage was unique in northern Europe where broad flan silver pennies had been in use in the southern England and in the Carolingian Empire since the late eighth century.